Cameroon’s emission reductions program will focus on an area of 9.3 million hectares along the country’s southern border of which 71% are covered with dense tropical rainforest. The area forms a continuum with the ER program area in the northern part of the Republic of Congo enabling the two governments to control transboundary leakage. While deforestation was historically low, the target area is now under increasing threat from agricultural expansion, industrial and artisanal mining, infrastructure development, and illegal logging and timber exploitation - amongst other drivers of deforestation. Covering a total population of 1 million people including Indigenous Peoples, such as the Bakola and Bagyeliand Ba’ka, the program will bring together different actors to advance sustainable land use planning and zoning to address deforestation through intensified agriculture, agroforestry, and more sustainable cocoa production. The program will further have an emphasis on sustainable forest management in timber concessions and the introduction of reduced impact logging.
Chile’s program to reduce emissions from degradation in temperate forests is a cornerstone for the country’s national forestry strategy. This program which spans 16.5 million hectares over Chile’s Maule, Biobío, Araucanía, Los Ríos, and Los Lagos regions will take action to address the three main drivers of deforestation and degradation: illegal logging, forest fires and replacement of native forests by non-native plantations. The Government of Chile is committed to the development of this large-scale program to reduce deforestation and forest degradation by improving forest management and focusing on cross-sectoral issues which impact areas with the most forest cover.
Costa Rica is currently concluding its REDD+ readiness phase and is designing an emission reductions program covering 341,000 hectares that will be implemented nationally. The program includes a wide range of policies and measures to conserve and enhance carbon stocks based on more than 20 years of experience with forest conservation and management. At the heart of the program is Costa Rica’s successful Payment for Environmental Services Program and an extensive protected area system that gradually incorporates additional REDD+ activities. The program is developed with the active participation of relevant stakeholders. The program along with the National REDD+ Strategy will promote the country’s commitment to carbon neutrality and will contribute to poverty reduction by expanding an inclusive forestry and agroforestry-based development model.
Cote d’Ivoire’s emissions reduction program combines political commitment and private sector initiatives in one sub-national geography that is a hot spot of cocoa production and is a main area for development of palm oil and rubber plantations. The program area, covering five of the county’s Southwest regions (Cavally, Nawa, San Pedro, Guemon and Gboklè) over 4 million hectares includes the country’s last remaining large forest block. The program aims to address the main drivers of deforestation including, extension of agricultural production areas, weak forest governance and illegal logging, logging for wood energy production, illegal mining through zero-deforestation agriculture in partnership with the private sector, agricultural intensification, and capacity building for forest monitoring, among other activities.
Democratic Republic of Congo
The Maï N'dombe emissions reduction program aims at implementing the Democratic Republic of Congo’s green development vision at provincial scale by providing alternatives to deforestation and rewarding performance to address the challenges of climate change, poverty reduction, natural resource management and protection of biodiversity. The program includes a balanced combination of enabling activities (strengthening governance, capacity building, local level land-use planning, securing and modernizing land tenure, demography) and sectorial activities (reduced impact logging, agroforestry, conservation concessions) across more than 12 million hectares in the country’s Maï N'dombe province. The direct drivers of deforestation and forest degradation addressed by the program’s intervention strategy include: slash-and burn agriculture, fuelwood production, uncontrolled bush fires, small-scale or artisanal logging and industrial logging.
The emissions reduction program of the Dominican Republic will be carried out at national scale. In addition to reducing emissions in protected areas through reforestation in key watersheds, it will also contribute to the preservation of the country’s flora and fauna, 38 percent of which is native to the Dominican Republic. To reach its goals, the program will establish a set of sustainable livelihoods projects to engage rural communities. Special attention will be given to work in the bordering landscapes with Haiti, where a bi-national program to promote reforestation and conservation activities is being implemented. Some of the drivers of deforestation and forest degradation to be addressed include slash-and-burn agriculture and extensive livestock farming, weak or inexistent forest governance, unsustainable extraction of timber and non-timber forest products and forest fire control. Private sector participants and cooperative participants from the cocoa, coffee and livestock sector will play an integral part in the program.
The emissions reduction program proposed by Fiji will include the islands of Viti Levu, Vanua Levu and Taveuni spanning over 1 million hectares of land, which is 94 percent of the forest cover in Fiji. This program takes an integrated approach to emissions reduction and removal through Afforestation/Reforestation, forest rehabilitation, improved harvesting practices, national and subnational land use planning and sustainable forest management. It will be implemented in a participatory manner where communities are at the center of program implementation. These program activities are built around addressing the drivers of deforestation and degradation (regular fires to maintain grass land and open forest, slash-and-burn agriculture, logging) and are in line with national climate change and disaster risks management policies and activities. The program places emphasis on enhancing benefits that extend beyond carbon such as improvements to the ecosystem, strengthened food security, land tenure, and conservation of social and cultural values.
Ghana’s Cocoa Forest REDD+ Program has a strong focus on greening the cocoa supply chain that is driving forest loss through agricultural expansion. Partnering with the private sector through the Cocoa Board, the government has proposed a community-based approach to double cocoa yields in at least 25 percent of the country. The program, targeting Brong-Ahafo and the Western Region of the country, seeks to significantly reduce emissions driven by expansion of cocoa into forest areas, coupled with illegal logging. The program will cover almost 6 million hectares and focus on cocoa farming resources and land use interventions, while promoting other tree crops or agroforestry systems (oil palm, rubber, non-timber forest products, plantations) on soils and land-use types that are unsuitable for cocoa.
- ER-PIN (English); Summary (English); Annexes, Annexes II, Annexes III, Annexes IV, Annexes V, Annexes VI; Presentation (English)
Building on existing legal and financial frameworks for forest governance developed over the past 15 years, the emission reductions program in Guatemala will be a national-level initiative with program activities covering almost 11 million hectares. The main drivers of deforestation include land use change, agriculture expansion, forest fires, livestock and illegal logging, high opportunity cost, and lack of rural employment. The program will engage in six areas of REDD+ activity: incentives to increase carbon stocks, sustainable forest management, strengthening protected areas co-management, agroforestry systems and forest plantations, governance and law enforcement on forest lands, as well as the development of a forest products value chain. In addition to benefitting from strong political commitment of the Guatemalan Government, a supportive institutional setting for linking these activities with key government institutions and participation by local communities has been cultivated.
Indonesia’s REDD+ program focuses on East Kalimantan, an area that contains almost 15 million hectares of forest, including 400,000 hectares of peat lands. The province is promoting its development objectives through a low-emissions development initiative, which is implemented through provincial strategies and action plans that build on the strong leadership in the region on climate change. The program is designed to address the over-exploitation of forests for timber production, illegal logging, forest encroachment, forest fires and the impacts of infrastructure development through actions that include improvements in forest licensing and small-scale plantations, and the promotion of community-based planning. Key interventions also target actions on agricultural land to reduce pressure on the forest estate by minimizing the impact of slash-and-burn agriculture, plantation development, and the expansion of mining.
Aiming at promoting REDD+ through governance, forest landscapes and livelihoods, Lao PDR is launching an emissions reduction program in a contiguous landscape covering six Northern provinces: Luang Namtha, Bokeo, Sayabouri, Oudomxay, Luang Prabang and Houaphan. The program area covers over 8 million hectares across more than one-third of the country. Deforestation and degradation is directly driven through shifting cultivation, logging, agriculture, infrastructure and mining; and indirectly caused by weak governance, limited institutional capacity, poverty, food insecurity, and land tenure insecurity. These drivers and underlying causes will be addressed through activities at the provincial level encompassing governance and law enforcement, forest landscape management and integrated spatial planning, livelihood development, payment for environmental services, forest restoration, and sustainable forest management certification.
Madagascar’s emissions reduction program is explicitly linked to its Integrated Agriculture Landscape program, with the aim to increase productivity in agriculture while improving soil, conserving water resources, and protecting vital forests and biodiversity. Madagascar’s program in the Eastern Humid Forest Eco-region covers almost 5 million hectares including 14 key watersheds. Because of the integrated nature of the program’s design, efforts to address drivers of deforestation—which primarily consist of unsustainable agricultural expansion, heavy reliance on wood energy, and logging and mining—are linked directly with efforts to improve agricultural production, conserve soil and water, and reduce rural poverty. Specific activities include support for shifts to more sustainable and productive agricultural practices, linked with results-based payments for forest conservation.
The Zambezia Integrated Landscape Management Program (ZILMP) is an ambitious cross-cutting 4-million hectare initiative to promote sustainable rural development in one of Mozambique’s poorest provinces, it is the first-of-its-kind in the country. The main drivers of deforestation in the program area are weak governance and weak law enforcement; subsistence farming, agricultural expansion, removal of wood for domestic uses, and illegal logging. The program focuses on forest conservation and management, conservation agriculture, biomass energy management and land use planning. These activities will be implemented through a cooperative approach combining policies, programs and actions across different levels and sectors of the government and involve multiple stakeholders (government, farmers, communities, private sector, NGOs) to maximize access to funds and institutional capacity.
Mexico’s program for a Community-Based Landscape Approach to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions aims at transforming the management of forests across the landscape through policy instruments, institutional reforms, and capacity building programs. Spanning 29 million hectares across five regions (Campeche, Chiapas, Jalisco, Quintana Roo, and Yucatán) Mexico’s program will support rural communities in the development of low-carbon investment plans that aim to reduce carbon emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. The program will scale up the lessons learned from previous experience and engage government and local stakeholders alike to address the main drivers of deforestation including, lack of public sector coordination, illegal activities, unsustainable forestry farming practices, land use change, and the high opportunity cost of sustainable land use choices.
Nicaragua is developing a 20-year REDD+ Program in the Caribbean Coast Region and the two adjacent reserves: Bosawás and Indio Maíz. The Program aims reduce the deforestation rate by half through avoided deforestation, forest degradation, and carbon stock enhancement. Examples of these activities are forest protection, sustainable forest management, reforestation and restoration; as well as activities that reduce pressure on native forests, such as agro-forestry, silvo-pastoral systems, and farm intensification. Complementary measures to strengthen forest governance, support sustainable value chains, and strengthen institutional capacity will also be undertaken.
Building on three decades of successful community forestry program, Nepal is developing the an emissions reduction program in 12 districts of Nepal’s Terai Arc Landscape to transform more than 2 million hectares landscape and reach a population of seven million people, 80 percent of which are forest dependent. The main drivers of deforestation include unsustainable and illegal wood harvesting, overgrazing, forest fires, and land conversion (encroachment, resettlement). To address these drivers, Nepal plans to transfer government managed forests to participatory management models, implement sustainable management of forest and carbon enhancement practices, expand alternative energy initiatives, integrate land use planning, engage private sector, and enhance alternative livelihood opportunities focused on agriculture.
Peru´s large emissions reduction program spanning more than 15 million hectares targets the Amazon regions of San Martin and Ucayali. These regions encompass the main drivers of deforestation in the Peruvian Amazon: shifting agriculture, medium to large scale agro-industrial production, and selective logging. The Ministries of the Environment and Agriculture, Livestock, and Irrigation, regional governments, and indigenous and private sector organizations will collaborate on an integrated landscape approach aimed at improving enabling conditions related to land-use and increasing agricultural and forestry productivity and competitiveness through increased institutional, organizational, and productive capacities and access to markets.
Republic of Congo
The Emission Reductions Program in Northern Congo proposed by the Republic of Congo is a collaborative public-private partnership with CIB-Olam, a leading agribusiness on cocoa. Program activity over 12 million hectares is built around addressing the drivers of deforestation and degradation (industrial logging, agro-industrial production, slash-and-burn agriculture, and illegal logging). Emissions reduction activities proposed include reduced impact logging, set aside areas for forests with high conservation value in oil palm and mining concessions, production of cocoa by smallholders through agroforestry systems, smallholder outgrower schemes, conservation agriculture, crop diversification and improved management of protected areas. These interventions have substantial non-carbon benefits that support the national vision for a green economy building on sustainable management of natural ecosystems, participatory management and poverty reduction.
Vietnam’s emissions reductions program encompasses the entirety of the country’s North-Central Agro-Ecological Region totaling over 5 million hectares across six provinces in the Northern Annamite Mountains. It aims to make substantial achievements for sustainable forest agriculture through interventions in the forestry, energy and agriculture sectors to promote sustainable land use and reduce pressure to cut down the forest. Working across key sectors to address the drivers of deforestation and forest degradation (agriculture; infrastructure; shifting cultivation; unsustainable forest harvesting; illegal logging) the program can serve as a paragon of green growth for Vietnam and the wider Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) region.